There are 2 types of day traders: institutional and retail. Both institutional and retail day traders are described as speculators, as opposed to investors.
Institutional day traders work for financial institutions and have certain advantages over retail traders due to their access to more resources, tools, equipment, large amounts of capital and leverage, large availability of fresh fund inflows to trade continuously on the markets


In the past, most day traders were institutional traders due to the advantages they had over retail traders. However, since the technology boom in the second half of the 1990s, advances in personal computing and communications technology, realized in the accessibility of powerful personal computers and the Internet, have brought fast online trading and powerful market analytical tools to the mainstream. Low, affordable commissions from discount brokers as well as regulation improvements in favor of retail traders have also helped level the trading playing field, making success as a retail trader a possibility for many and a reality for some.


There are 2 types of day traders: institutional and retail. Both institutional and retail day traders are described as speculators, as opposed to investors.
Institutional day traders work for financial institutions and have certain advantages over retail traders due to their access to more resources, tools, equipment, large amounts of capital and leverage, large availability of fresh fund inflows to trade continuously on the markets, dedicated and direct lines to data centers and exchanges, expensive and high-end trading and analytical software, support teams to help and more. These advantages give them certain edges over retail day traders.[1]
Retail day traders work for themselves, or in partnership with a few other traders. Retail traders generally trade with their own capital, though they may also trade with other people’s money. Laws may restrict the amount of other people’s money a retail trader can manage. In the United States, day traders may not advertise as advisors or financial managers. Although not required, nearly all retail day traders use direct access brokers as they offer the fastest order entry to the exchanges, as well as superior software trading platforms.

Auto traders auto-trade, which stands for automated trading and the use of computer programs and other tools to enter trading orders. Because this all happens with the help of the computer algorithm it is also called algorithmic trading.[2]


Researchers discover new type of cell movement
12:00 am August 29, 2014

Researchers discover new type of cell movement<br>For decades, researchers have used Petri dishes to study cell movement. These classic tissue culture tools, however, only permit two-dimensional movement, very different from the three-dimensional movements that cells make in a human body.

How long before you had your first sensation?
12:57 am August 28, 2014

I decided to join the club about two weeks ago. I got a magnet implanted in my left ring finger, done by a piercer. And I was just wondering what your experiences with this are. I have not had any kind of sensation, it’s healed very well, almost no sign of a cut. But not so much as a tingle. 

The ancient conversation between plants, fungi and bacteria
12:00 am August 28, 2014

The ancient conversation between plants, fungi and bacteria<br>The mechanical force that a single fungal cell or bacterial colony exerts on a plant cell may seem vanishingly small, but it plays a heavy role in setting up some of the most fundamental symbiotic relationships in biology.

6:13 pm August 27, 2014

NMR structure of Kindlin-2 F2 339-358

6:13 pm August 27, 2014

Backbone 1H and 15N Chemical Shift Assignments for the first domain of FAT10

Best introductory article/website to explain the idea of biohacking?
5:43 am August 27, 2014

There have been a couple people recently that have asked me about bio-hacking for one reason or another. I was just looking around for an article or website with a good introduction to share, but really didn’t find anything modern. For example I didn’t find any general biohacking articles that have references to the NIR vision experiment or DirectorX’s magnetic ear implants. Where would you guys recommend sending someone for a good biohacking 101?

This week’s new structures (Tuesday Aug 26, 2014 at 5 PM PDT)
12:02 am August 27, 2014

As of Tuesday Aug 26, 2014 at 5 PM PDT there are 102863 Structures.
New Structure ID List:
[2MBE, 2MSU, 2RTT, 3WGP, 3WSD, 3WSE, 3WSF, 3WSG, 3WSH, 3WSI, 4C0S, 4C18, 4C1C, 4C1D, 4C1E, 4C1F, 4C1G, 4C1H, 4C1I, 4C1W, 4C1Y, 4CET, 4CEU, 4CEX, 4CF6, 4CZ5, 4CZ6, 4CZ7, 4D1L, 4D1M, 4LQ2, 4LU9, 4MAD, 4MBT, 4MCM, 4MCN, 4MEC, 4MES, 4MF8, 4MFA, 4MJS, 4MPI, 4MPR, 4MQ5, 4MQ6, 4MST, 4MUE, 4MUF, 4MUG, 4MUH, 4MUI, 4MUJ, 4MUK, 4MUL, 4MUN, 4MZV, 4N0S, 4N3D, 4N40, 4NCD, 4NIB, 4NK7, 4NKB, 4NY9, 4OGA, 4OTD, 4OTG, 4OTH, 4OTI, 4OUK, 4OX6, 4OX7, 4OX8, 4P0D, 4P5M, 4P5U, 4P61, 4P78, 4P7D, 4P9W, 4P9X, 4P9Y, 4PD0, 4PD1, 4PE8, 4PEF, 4PEG, 4PEH, 4PEI, 4PHB, 4PHC, 4PJU, 4PJW, 4PLQ, 4PLR, 4Q0R, 4Q0W, 4Q0Z, 4Q10, 4Q7J, 4QFI, 4QFJ, 4QQW, 4QQY, 4QQZ, 4QRL, 4QW8, 4QW9, 4QWA, 4QWB, 4QWC, 4QWD, 4QWE, 4QY4, 4QYI, 4R01, 4R03, 4R0Q, 4R1G, 4R1L, 4R1M, 4R2B, 4R2F, 4R31, 4TU3, 4TUY, 4TV8, 4TXD, 4TZR, 4U4F, 4U7U, 4UN2, 4UNT, 4UNU, 4UNV, 4UOO, 4UOP, 4UOR, 4UUD, 4UUJ, 4UUK, 4UW0, 4UWD]

Focus on naturally occurring protein to tackle dementia
12:00 am August 27, 2014

Focus on naturally occurring protein to tackle dementia <br>Synapses PhotoScientists at the University of Warwick have provided the first evidence that the lack of a naturally occurring protein is linked to early signs of dementia.

"Killer App" for peripheral nervous interface?
1:05 pm August 26, 2014

Just curious about everyone’s vision for where this might be headed.  

Assuming that the technical challenges of direct electrical interface with peripheral nerves can be overcome, what will be the first useful/popular implant to interface directly with the peripheral nervous system?
An example of my thoughts:
Some type of implanted magnet and attached electrodes (forgive rudimentary technical knowledge), a la the cochlear implant, where the electrode interfaces with a peripheral nerve.  The magnet is used to send/receive signals through the skin via an external magnet.  The external magnet can be connected to any number of receptive devices tuned to pick up EM signals, sound/vibration, temperature, whatever.  The ultimate effect is that a chosen stimulus excites the external receiver, the receiver transmits wirelessly/transcutaneously to the subdermal magnet, which stimulates the peripheral nerve via an electrode, rendering a sensation.  
Just one broad idea.
What are your ideas for the first ‘big’ cybernetic device to interface directly with the peripheral nervous system?  What will be the ‘killer app’ that makes these implants have broad appeal?
2:31 am August 26, 2014


慶應義塾大学理工学部 機械工学科 森田研究室では、機構、制御、技能、そして、それらの統合の観点で独自のロボット研究開発を進めています。







Scientists uncover navigation system used by cancer and nerve cells
12:00 am August 26, 2014

Scientists uncover navigation system used by cancer and nerve cells<br>Duke University researchers have found a ‘roving detection system’ on the surface of cells that may point to new ways of treating diseases like cancer, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Electronic Subdermal Implant Tech
6:55 pm August 25, 2014
A few ideas or approaches for subdermal implantation of electronics I would like to discuss with you more experienced and critical people here.

1. Separating power supply from actual control circuitry

By (physically) separating away the battery, charging coil and ~ circuitry from the control circuitry and the actual implant, the overall thickness of the implant can be drastically lowered (obviously at cost of the area). Ideally the power supply would be placed in a better accessible position than the implant that can accommodate for a larger implant. We however don’t have technology for wires that span movable tissue, so there really aren’t any places where this would work at the moment.
2. Bluetooth (4.0) Connectivity
Initially I was against the idea of implanting a Bluetooth module along a microprocessor, both because of relatively large energy drains and physical size of traditional modules.
The Bluetooth 4.0 “Low Energy” Standard (BLE/”Bluetooth smart”) however solves both problems nicely, a TDI BLE module is just 4x5x1mm in size (including antenna!). The module is a QFN-package and more or less impossible to hand solder though (70 pins on less than an square centimeter iirc).
BLE is only set up for distances of about 10m and I don’t know how bad RF-through-skin really is, but I do believe there should be some range (think mobile phone in pocket) left outside the body.

Two other chipsets are the RFDuino and BlueRadios nBlue. The interesting part about both these is that they feature an on-board programmable microcontroller to do all the bluetooth stuff. The RFDuino can be programmed like a usual arduino, whilst the nBlue can only be programmed with a (very expensive) hardware debugger kit. However the nBlue features a lot of configuration options in the firmware, which even allow to set output pins of the package at runtime, over the air.
Why is this important? Well… one awesome feature of bluetooth would be being able to program the implant over the air. The RFDuino doesn’t support this, and the nBlue (for us) doesn’t really either, but both can be used to program another microcontroller. They just need to set the reset pin on the ATMega (or whatever really) and then forward the UART data they receive and we could have an OTA-programmable implant, that can even talk to smartphones.
3. Flexible PCBs and Coating
Flexible PCBs could be a great way to shrink size of implants and make larger ones possible at the same time.
By using SMD ICs and hardware on FPCBs and embedding these in flexible silicone, you could place implants in slightly bent areas (like the forearm) without creating extremely protruding implants.
Combine this with additional silicone to get a “cool” shape and you get a glowing arc reactor! (ok, agreeably there are better things to put this to work with).
So… what do you think?
Fun with non-proteinogenic Amino Acids
1:40 pm August 25, 2014

There are some damn interesting Amino Acids out there; I’ll list a few I find cool and I’ll tell you why. Keep in mind I’m mostly brainstorming some stuff here because the boards have been too quite. If anyone wants to grab any of these things for a project… go for it. These are  amino acids that aren’t coded for in the human genome. Some may be used post translationally though.

Norvaline – Lots of articles talking about it’s use in speeding up tissue repair and enhancing muscle growth. Haven’t found related journal articles yet.

Ornithine – Decreases fatigue related to it’s role in breaking down ammonia/urea etc.

Homocysteine – A nasty one… perhaps look into methods of inhibition and whatnot.

Sarcosine – Being researched as a med for depression and schizophrenia.

Isovaline – crazy new analgesic that doesn’t cross the blood brain barrier, mimicks GABA, and was discovered in a freakin meteorite. It’s probably the amino acid used in Tribbles is you dig that sort of thing.






Auditory hair cell regeneration
11:30 am August 25, 2014

A study (linked below) published in Neuron in 2012 reported a return of hearing in rats related to transdifferentiation of support cells into hair cell after administration of a y-secretase inhibitor compound. I haven’t really looked into this much but it seems very interesting. Below are links including sourcing of some Y-secretase compounds.


B10N1C project on hackaday
3:54 am August 23, 2014
so I found this, is it someone here?

Diphtheria toxin-based recombinant murine IL-2 fusion toxin for depleting murine regulatory T cells in vivo
3:32 pm August 21, 2014

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells which suppress immune responses of effector cells and are known to play a very important role in protection against autoimmune disease development, induction of transplantation tolerance and suppression of effective immune response against tumor cells. An effective in vivo Treg depletion agent would facilitate Treg-associated studies across many research areas. In this study, we have developed diphtheria toxin-based monovalent and bivalent murine IL-2 fusion toxins for depleting murine IL-2 receptor positive cells including CD25+ Treg in vivo. Their potencies were assessed by in vitro protein synthesis inhibition and cell proliferation inhibition assays using a murine CD25+ CTLL-2 cell line. Surprisingly, in contrast to our previously developed recombinant fusion toxins, the monovalent isoform (DT390-mIL-2) was approximately 4-fold more potent than its bivalent counterpart (DT390-bi-mIL-2). Binding analysis by flow cytometry demonstrated that the monovalent isoform bound stronger than the bivalent version. In vivo Treg depletion with the monovalent murine IL-2 fusion toxin was performed using C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Spleen Treg were significantly depleted with a maximum reduction of ~70% and detectable as early as 12 h after the last injection. The spleen Treg numbers were reduced until Day 3 and returned to control levels by Day 7. We believe that this monovalent murine IL-2 fusion toxin will be an effective in vivo murine Treg depleter.

Protein redesign by learning from data
3:32 pm August 21, 2014

Protein redesign methods aim to improve a desired property by carefully selecting mutations in relevant regions guided by protein structure. However, often protein structural requirements underlying biological characteristics are not well understood. Here, we introduce a methodology that learns relevant mutations from a set of proteins that have the desired property and demonstrate it by successfully improving production levels of two enzymes by Aspergillus niger, a relevant host organism for industrial enzyme production. We validated our method on two enzymes, an esterase and an inulinase, creating four redesigns with 5–45 mutations. Up to 10-fold increase in production was obtained with preserved enzyme activity for small numbers of mutations, whereas production levels and activities dropped for too aggressive redesigns. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of protein redesign by learning. Such an approach has great potential for improving production levels of many industrial enzymes and could potentially be employed for other design goals.

SpeedyGenes: an improved gene synthesis method for the efficient production of error-corrected, synthetic protein libraries for directed evolution
3:32 pm August 21, 2014

The de novo synthesis of genes is becoming increasingly common in synthetic biology studies. However, the inherent error rate (introduced by errors incurred during oligonucleotide synthesis) limits its use in synthesising protein libraries to only short genes. Here we introduce SpeedyGenes, a PCR-based method for the synthesis of diverse protein libraries that includes an error-correction procedure, enabling the efficient synthesis of large genes for use directly in functional screening. First, we demonstrate an accurate gene synthesis method by synthesising and directly screening (without pre-selection) a 747 bp gene for green fluorescent protein (yielding 85% fluorescent colonies) and a larger 1518 bp gene (a monoamine oxidase, producing 76% colonies with full catalytic activity, a 4-fold improvement over previous methods). Secondly, we show that SpeedyGenes can accommodate multiple and combinatorial variant sequences while maintaining efficient enzymatic error correction, which is particularly crucial for larger genes. In its first application for directed evolution, we demonstrate the use of SpeedyGenes in the synthesis and screening of large libraries of MAO-N variants. Using this method, libraries are synthesised, transformed and screened within 3 days. Importantly, as each mutation we introduce is controlled by the oligonucleotide sequence, SpeedyGenes enables the synthesis of large, diverse, yet controlled variant sequences for the purposes of directed evolution.

A semi-artificial leaf faster than ‘natural’ photosynthesis
12:00 am August 21, 2014

A semi-artificial leaf faster than ‘natural’ photosynthesis<br>A cooperation between chemists and biologists from the Ruhr-University Bochum resulted in a new method for the very efficient integration of photosynthetic proteins in photovoltaics.

3:26 am August 20, 2014

Crystal structure of the E. coli CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex, Cascade

несанкционированный доступ к базе данных. (Заново за 30 секунд ...) OAUTH_E354